There is a sufficient number of Ahadith on contraception and none of them explicitly prohibit it, including the one you mentioned above. The most commonly quoted ones are the following.
1. According to Jabir, “We used to practice azl in the Prophet’s (pbuh) lifetime while the Qur’an was being revealed.” There is another version of the same hadith, “We used to practice coitus interruptus during the Prophet’s (pbuh) lifetime. News of this reached him and he did not forbid us.”
2. According to Jabir, “A man came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, ‘I have a slave girl, and we need her as a servant and around the palm groves. I have sex with her, but I am afraid of her becoming pregnant.’ The Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Practice ‘azl with her if you so wish, for she will receive what has been predestined for her.'”
3. According to Abu Said, “We rode out with the Prophet (pbuh) to raid Banu al-Mustaliq and captured some female prisoners . . . we desired women and abstinence became hard. [But] we wanted to practice azl; and asked the Prophet (pbuh) about it. He said, ‘You do not have to hesitate, for God has predestined what is to be created until the judgment day.'”
4. According to Abu Said, “The Jews say that coitus interruptus is minor infanticide, and the Prophet (pbuh) answered, ‘The Jews lie, for if God wanted to create something, no one can avert it (or divert Him).”
5. According to ‘Umar Ibn Khattab, “The Prophet (pbuh) forbade the practice of azl with a free woman except with her permission.”
6. According to Anas, “A man asked the Prophet (pbuh) about azl and the Prophet (pbuh) said, ‘Even if you spill a seed from which a child was meant to be born on a rock, God will bring forth from that rock a child.”
These Ahadith reflect two points: first that the Prophet (pbuh) knew about the practice and did not prohibit it (no. 1), and second, that the Prophet (pbuh) himself permitted the practice (no. 2 & 3).
More importantly, no Quranic text forbids prevention of conception. There are, however, some Quranic verses which prohibit infanticide and these are used by some Muslims to discourage birth control. But contraception does not amount to killing a human being. These verses in fact were revealed to forbid the pre-Islamic Arab practice of killing or burying alive a newborn child (particularly a girl) on account of the parents’ poverty or to refrain from having a female child. Perhaps in those days, people did not know safe methods of contraception and early abortion.
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